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100 + 1 Ἀγγλικὲς λέξεις ποὺ γεννήθηκαν στὴν Ἑλλάδα / 100 + 1 English words of Greek origin

Τὸ βιβλίο ποὺ ἔχετε στὰ χέρια σας (ἢ στὸν ὑπολογιστή σας), εἶναι γραμμένο μὲ βάση τὰ δεδομένα τοῦ σύγχρονου ἀναγνώστη: σύντομο (μόλις 101 λήμματα), εὔληπτο (τὰ βασικὰ μόνο στοιχεῖα τῆς ἐτυμολογικῆς διαδρομῆς τῆς κάθε λέξης) καὶ δίγλωσσο (στὰ ελληνικὰ καὶ στὰ ἀγγλικά). Ἔτσι, μπορεῖ νὰ βοηθήσῃ στὸ μὲν γλωσσικὸ ἐπίπεδο καὶ αὐτὸν ποὺ ξέρει ἑλληνικὰ νὰ βελτιώσῃ τὸ ἐπίπεδο τῶν ἀγγλικῶν του, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ ἀντίστροφο, αὐτὸν δηλαδὴ ποὺ ξέρει καλὰ ἀγγλικὰ εἴτε νὰ βελτιώσῃ τὰ ἑλληνικά του (ἂν τὰ ἔχει ξεχάσει) εἴτε νὰ ἀρχίσῃ νὰ μαθαίνῃ τὰ ἑλληνικά, στὸ δὲ ἐτυμολογικὸ ἐπίπεδο, νὰ εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν ἀναγνώστη μὲ ἤπιο καὶ εὐχάριστο τρόπο στὸν θαυμαστὸ κόσμο τῆς ἐτυμολογίας.

The book you hold in your hands (or have in your personal computer) is written according to modern readers’ profile: it is brief (it contains no more than 101 lemmata), intuitive (only the basic elements of every word’s etymological evolution are given), and bilingual (it is written in Greek and English). Thus, regarding language, it can help someone who speaks Greek to improve their English level, as well as vice versa, that is, it can help someone who speaks English either to improve their Greek level (in case they have forgotten Greek) or to start learning it. As for etymology, it can introduce readers to its marvelous world in a mild and pleasant way.

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  • Ἡ μεταξὺ ἑλληνικῶν καὶ ἀγγλικῶν σχέση Οἱ Ῥωμαῖοι κατέκτησαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα τὸ 146 π. Χ. Καθὼς ὅμως δὲν εἶχαν ἀσχοληθῆ μὲ τὶς τέχνες καὶ τὸν πολιτισμὸ γενικώτερα, δέχθηκαν τὴν ἰσχυρὴ ἐπίδραση τοῦ ἑλληνικοῦ πολιτισμοῦ καὶ τῆς ἑλληνικῆς γλώσσας. Αὐτὸ ἀποτυπώθηκε καὶ στοὺς περίφημους στίχους τοῦ κορυφαίου Λατίνου ποιητῆ Ὁρατίου (65 - 8 π. Χ.): “Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artis intulit agresti Latio”. (Μτφρ.: «Παρ᾿ ὅτι ἡ Ἑλλὰς κατακτήθηκε, αὐτὴ νίκησε τὸν κατακτητὴ καὶ εἰσήγαγε τὶς τέχνες στὸ ἀπολίτιστο Λάτιο», Ὁράτιος, Epistulae = Ἐπιστολές, 2.1.156-157). Ἡ προοδευτικὴ κατάκτηση τῆς Εὐρώπης ἀκολούθως ἀπὸ τοὺς Ῥωμαίους εἶχε ὡς ἀποτέλεσμα τὸν ἐκρωμαϊσμὸ τῶν λαῶν της. Μαζὶ μὲ τὰ ἤθη τους μετέδωσαν καὶ τὴν γλῶσσά τους, τὴν λατινική, ἡ ὁποία ὅμως εἶχε προηγουμένως ἐνσωματώσει στὸ λεξιλόγιό της ἕνα πολὺ μεγάλο ἀριθμὸ ἑλληνικῶν λέξεων. Τὸ λεξιλόγιο αὐτὸ διευρύνθηκε μὲ τὴν συγγραφὴ τῶν Εὐαγγελίων στὴν ἑλληνικὴ καὶ τὴν τεράστια διάδοσή του, καθὼς καὶ τὴν κατάκτηση τῆς Βρεττανίας ἀπὸ τοὺς Νορμανδούς (1066 - 1362). Θὰ συνεχιστῇ μὲ τὴν Ἀναγέννηση, γιὰ νὰ φθάσει στὸ ἀπόγειό του ἀπὸ τὸν 18ο αἰῶνα καὶ ἑξῆς μὲ τὴν ἀνάπτυξη τῶν ἐπιστημῶν. Ἡ βασικὴ διαδρομὴ λοιπὸν εἶναι ἡ ἑξῆς: ἑλληνική - λατινική - ἀγγλική! The connection between Greek and English The Romans conquered Greece in 146 B. C. However, since they were not involved in arts and, more generally, culture, they were strongly influenced by the Greek language and culture. This is reflected in the celebrated verses of the sublime Latin poet Horace (65 – 8 B. C.): “Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artis intulit agresti Latio”. (Translation: “Though Greece was conquered, it subdued the conqueror and it introduced arts in the uncultured Latium”, Horace, Epistulae = Epistles, 2.1.156-157). Subsequently, the gradual conquering of Europe by the Romans resulted in the Romanisation of its peoples. Apart from their folkway, they also transmitted their language, Latin, which, however, had previously incorporated plenty of Greek words into its vocabulary. This vocabulary was expanded by the writing of the Holy Gospels in Greek and its enormous diffusion, as well as the conquering of Britain by the Normans (1066 - 1362). It kept on being expanded during the Renaissance, reaching its peak from the 18th century onwards with the development of sciences. Thus, the basic course of words borrowing is the following: Greek – Latin – English!

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100 + 1 Ἀγγλικὲς λέξεις ποὺ γεννήθηκαν στὴν Ἑλλάδα / 100 + 1 English words of Greek origin

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