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Face masks precautions
(1) Respiratory protective equipment includes masks and masks. Wash hands before wearing and removing.
(B) Pay attention to the front and back and up and down when wearing a mask. The mask should cover the nose and mouth, and adjust the nose clip to fit the face.
(3) Avoid touching the inside and outside of the mask with your hands during wearing. Take off the mask by taking off the cord at both ends.
(4) Wearing multiple masks cannot effectively increase the protective effect, but instead increases respiratory resistance and may damage the adhesion.
(5) There is no evidence to prove the effectiveness of various measures such as cleaning and disinfection of masks.
(6) Both disposable medical masks and medical surgical masks are used for a limited time, and the cumulative use does not exceed 8 hours. Occupational exposure personnel do not use masks for more than 4 hours and cannot be reused.
When do I need a mask?
(1) Home and outdoor, no people gathered, well ventilated.
Protective advice: Do not wear a mask.
(2) Being in a crowded place, such as office, shopping, restaurant, conference room, workshop, etc .; or taking a box elevator or public transportation.
Recommendations for protection: In medium and low-risk areas, you should bring a spare mask (a disposable medical mask or a surgical surgical mask) with you, and wear a mask when in close contact (less than 1 meter) with other people. In high-risk areas, wear disposable medical masks.
(3) For those with cold symptoms such as coughing or sneezing.
Protective advice: Wear disposable medical masks or medical surgical masks.
(4) For those who live together with those who are separated from home and discharged from rehabilitation.
Protective advice: Wear disposable medical masks or medical surgical masks.
1. What is a new coronavirus?
The prevalent coronavirus is a newly discovered coronavirus, named by the WHO as 2019-nCoV. The population is generally susceptible because the population lacks immunity to the new virus strains.
2. What is the difference between the new coronavirus and SARS virus?
The new coronavirus, SARS virus, and MERS virus belong to the large family of coronaviruses. They are "brothers and sisters." The genetic sequences have many similarities, but they are not exactly the same. The infectivity compared with SARS has yet to be determined, and the fatality rate is currently lower than SARS, but the possibility of virus mutation is not ruled out.
3. Which wild animals carry coronavirus?
Many wild animals can carry pathogens and become a source of transmission. Civets, bats, bamboo rats, and tadpoles are common hosts of coronaviruses.
It is speculated that the natural host of the new coronavirus in Wuhan this time may be bats, but how it is transmitted from bats to humans and what the intermediary is is unclear.
For the sake of safety, you should never eat foods such as wild animals and raw food that are not quarantined, such as raw meat on the roadside.
4. Can the latency be detected?
The incubation period can be detected by nucleic acid in patient samples, which can detect new coronavirus infections early.
5. Can the new coronavirus be passed from person to person?
meeting. Human-to-human infections and medical staff infections have occurred, with community transmission to a certain extent. According to the analysis by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the transmission of droplets of the new coronavirus can almost determine the existence of contact transmission, but it is not yet determined whether there is air transmission.
The new coronavirus has a certain transmission intensity. If no protective measures are taken, theoretically one patient can transmit the virus to two to three people.
6. What is droplet transmission?
Droplets can enter susceptible mucosal surfaces through a certain distance (typically 1 to 2 meters). Because the droplets are larger (greater than 5um), they will not be suspended in the air for a long time.
Daily face-to-face talking, coughing and sneezing can cause droplets to spread. If you have a patient with a suspected new type of coronavirus, remember to wear a mask and try to keep a distance of more than 2 meters. Masks should be properly discarded after use, and hands should be thoroughly washed with soap and running water after contact with patients.
7. What is airborne?
Airborne particles are generally less than 5um in diameter, and can still be infectious after being spread long distances. Airborne pathogens can also be transmitted through contact. The SARS coronavirus, which was previously circulating, was speculated to be transmitted through the air.
8. What is contact transmission?
Contact transmission, including direct contact transmission and indirect contact transmission.
Direct contact transmission
Direct contact transmission refers to an infection caused directly by a pathogen without passing through other items in the middle. We most often say direct contact transmission includes kissing and sexual intercourse. Kissing and sexual intercourse can only occur in close contact, so it is not recommended if you have symptoms of infection.
Indirect contact transmission
Indirect contact transmission refers to transmission caused by indirect contact with contaminated items. For example, hands and daily necessities (bedding, toys, utensils, clothing, etc.) are contaminated by excreta from the source of infection (such as feces may be transmitted, which cannot be fully determined at present) or secretions (such as those associated with coughing or sneezing) It is touched by the hand, and then touches the mucous membranes such as the nose, mouth and eyes to enter the body. Therefore, the main prevention is hand washing.
9. What are suspicious exposures?
Suspected persons are those who have been exposed to new coronavirus-positive wild animals, objects, and the environment, and have not taken effective protection (such as wearing a mask) when exposed.
10. What are close contacts?
Close contacts are those who have been in contact with a suspected or diagnosed infection in one of the following situations:
Persons who live, study, work or have close contact with the case;
Medical personnel, family members or other persons who have similar close contact with the case when they do not take effective protective measures during diagnosis, treatment, and visiting the case;
The case is the same as other patients and accompanying staff in the ward;
Travel on the same vehicle as the case and have close contact with people;
On-site investigators who are assessed as eligible after investigation.
For close contacts, medical observation is required at home. Do not go to work, do not go out casually, do a good job of self-physical observation, regular follow-up by community doctors.
Observe these signs and symptoms:
fever. Measure your temperature twice a day.
Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
Other early symptoms that require attention include chills, physical pain, sore throat, headache, diarrhea, nausea / vomiting, and runny nose.
If abnormal symptoms such as fever and cough occur, report to the local community follow-up doctor in time, and go to the designated medical department for investigation, diagnosis and treatment under the guidance of the doctor.
11. Why medically observe close contacts for 14 days?
The incubation period of new coronavirus pneumonia is about 7 days on average, the shortest is 2 to 3 days, and the longest is 10 to 12 days.
With reference to the incubation period of other diseases caused by coronavirus, the new coronavirus case will set the medical observation period for close contacts to 14 days, and conduct home medical observation for close contacts. After 14 days, the person can be judged uninfected if he does not develop the disease.
12. Will people who have been cured continue to get sick (infected)?
Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are susceptible to mutation, making it difficult for them to develop sustained immunity. For example, the flu virus that circulates every year requires the latest vaccination, also because the virus type often changes.
What are the symptoms that need to be carefully infected with the new coronavirus?
13. What symptoms may appear to be infected with the new coronavirus?
The new cases of pneumonia caused by new coronavirus infection often show fever, fatigue, dry cough, and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection such as nasal congestion and runny nose. About one-half of the patients will experience dyspnea after 1 week. In severe cases, they can quickly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, difficult to correct metabolic acidosis, and coagulopathy. Some patients have mild onset symptoms without fever. A few patients are critically ill and even die.
14. If clinical symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and dry cough appear, does it mean infection?
Many respiratory diseases will show symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Whether or not the infection needs to be diagnosed depends on whether the doctor has visited the epidemic area before the onset of the disease, has been exposed to suspicious or confirmed cases, and the results of laboratory tests.
15. Dry cough is one of the symptoms. What is the difference between dry cough and cough?
The main difference between a dry cough and a cough is the presence of sputum.
A dry cough is a cough that has no or little sputum when you cough. A common cold and acute bronchitis can also cause dry cough, and some respiratory infections are also common, such as acute sinusitis, acute rhinitis, acute tonsillitis, acute pharyngitis, and acute episodes of chronic bronchitis. In addition, inhaling some irritating gases and dust can also induce acute dry cough.
Cough is a protective response mechanism of the respiratory tract. Cough can clear secretions and harmful factors in the respiratory tract. Sputum is formed when secretions or harmful factors in the airways are expelled from the body with the action of a cough. Coughing and sputum usually means that the respiratory tract is irritated or has a disease.
16. What symptoms need to be treated in time?
If you have symptoms such as fever, fatigue, muscle aches, cough, sputum, shortness of breath, etc., you should seek medical treatment in time, and tell the doctor the travel history of the two weeks before the illness, so that the doctor can quickly make a judgment.
17. What department do I go to the hospital for symptoms?
For patients with fever, fatigue, and cough, the nurses will first take a temperature measurement and guide them to a fever clinic when they arrive at the hospital. The outpatient doctor will ask you whether you have been to the epidemic area within 2 weeks and have been exposed to suspicious or confirmed cases. If it is suspicious pneumonia, the doctor will collect your throat swabs, sputum and other specimens and send them to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or conditional hospital laboratory for testing of new coronavirus. If the test result is positive, the diagnosis is confirmed.
18. What should I do if I suspect that someone around me is infected with the new coronavirus?
If you suspect that people around you are infected with the new type of coronavirus, you should first wear a mask yourself and keep a distance of more than 1 meter from the other party to avoid close communication with the other party.
19. What is the difference between the new coronavirus pneumonia and the symptoms of flu and common cold?
New coronavirus pneumonia is mainly manifested by fever, fatigue, dry cough, etc., and pneumonia will appear. However, early pneumonia may not have fever, only chills and respiratory infection symptoms, but CT will show pneumonia.
Influenza is mainly manifested by high fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle pain. Sometimes it can cause pneumonia, but it is not common.
Common colds are mainly manifested by nasal congestion and runny nose. Most patients have mild symptoms and generally do not cause symptoms of pneumonia.
20. Medical conditions are limited. How can I isolate myself at home?
The hot fever clinic in the hospital brought together cases of possible infection, and rushing to the hospital blindly, not only wasted medical resources, but increased their own risk of infection with the new coronavirus pneumonia.
Now it coincides with the flu season, so a large part of the cases are not caused by common cold and flu, but even caused by common cold and flu. At present, there are no special medicines to treat the new coronary pneumonia, so for those with less severe symptoms, you can first Observe yourself at home.
For cases of fever and cough, if there is no chest tightness or shortness of breath, you can isolate yourself at home first:
If you can do it alone, if you ca n’t do it, try to keep one meter away from your family. In addition, in a single isolated room, the less the better, wear a mask and ventilate;
Bath and toilet should be used separately as much as possible. If not, disinfect and ventilate after use;
Do not eat live poultry and game, maintain nutritional balance, separate disinfection of separate tableware, it is recommended to cancel the group dinner;
Coronavirus is sensitive to heat. Lipid solvents such as ether, 75% alcohol, chlorine-containing disinfectant, peracetic acid, and chloroform can effectively inactivate pathogens for 30 minutes at 56 ° C. Do disinfection and wash your hands frequently;
At home, choose strong people to take care of, choose special clothes to wear when contacting the sick people, wear masks when taking care of patients, discard masks after use, and wash hands thoroughly with soap after contacting patients;
Clean all "high-frequency contact" surfaces, such as counters, tabletops, door handles, toilet fixtures, toilets, mobile phones, keyboards, tablets and bedside tables, daily. In addition, clean any surfaces that may carry blood, body fluids and / or secretions or excreta.
Measure body temperature twice a day. Fever, body temperature exceeding 38.5 ℃, accompanied by general discomfort, taking antipyretic drugs, such as acetaminophen;
Drink plenty of water during quarantine.
Viruses are "soft and scared". Good physical fitness, good rest and good nutrition can defeat the disease better.
If the fever exceeds 38 ℃, and one of the following 5 cases occurs at the same time, it is recommended to go to the hospital in time, and isolate and treat in the hospital if necessary:
Accompanied by dyspnea, marked chest tightness, asthma;
Patients who have been exposed to or suspected of new coronary pneumonia;
Patients with underlying diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, heart, brain, liver, lung and kidney;
Other particularly uncomfortable situations;
Elderly over 65 years old.
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