The article is dedicated to comprehending today's most acute philosophical, ethnic and environmental problems of humanity by means of the essayist
Searches for the identity of a person’s personality and ethno-identities of peoples are relevant in the context of humanistic aspirations of mankind, since the risks of loss of culture remain self-sufficient throughout its history existence.
What are these searches, how they are actualized in the essay, we will follow on the material of the essay by authors of different eras and different cultures, especially focusing on the essays of the 20th century.
Progenitor of the French essay genre M. Montaigne in the essay “Our feelings rush beyond our “I” states the following:
“We are never at home, we are always somewhere outside, looking for ourselves, striving to understand everything that happens both with the world and with oneself .
Thus, he follows the commandment that the ancient philosopher Plato proclaimed: “Do your thing work and know yourself ”and invites her to follow others in order to achieve a certain perfection in this imperfect world
[ibid.] The Russian philosopher of the early twentieth century N. Berdyaev shares the aspirations of both the ancient philosopher Plato and the French thinker M. Montaigne. He definitely states this in his philosophical work “Self-knowledge”: “This book is, in its own design, a philosophical one, devoted to philosophical problems. It's about self-knowledge and need
understand yourself, comprehend your type and your fate [3, p. 251]. He further explains his aspirations:
“I decide to take care of myself not only because that I feel the need to express myself andprint your face. But also because it can contribute to the formulation and solution of problems of man and human destiny, as well as
understanding of his era ”.
From his point view, real comprehension also consists in understanding everything that happens with the world as happening with oneself ”[
“I” and the whole world, the whole world and “I” this is the life credo of the Russian philosopher